The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is composed of a casing, a heat transfer tube bundle, a tube sheet, a baffle (baffle), and a pipe box. The housing is mostly cylindrical, and a tube bundle is installed inside, and both ends of the tube bundle are fixed on the tube sheet. The two types of hot and cold fluids that perform heat exchange, one flowing in the tube, called the tube-flow fluid, and the other flowing outside the tube, called the shell-side fluid. In order to increase the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid outside the tube, a number of baffles are usually installed in the housing. The baffle increases the speed of the shell-side fluid, forcing the fluid to pass laterally through the tube bundle multiple times over a specified path, enhancing fluid turbulence. The heat exchange tubes can be arranged on the tube sheets in an equilateral triangle or square. The equilateral triangles are arranged in a compact manner, the fluid outside the tube is highly turbulent, and the heat transfer coefficient is large; the square arrangement is convenient for cleaning outside the tube, and is suitable for fluids that are easy to scale.
The main control parameters of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger are heating area, hot water flow, heat exchange amount, and heat medium parameters.